This report focuses on the IUCN activities in the ENPI FLEG Program (IUCN-FLEG). Through interviews with IUCN-FLEG program staff and country coordinators, nine notable activities were documented and analyzed in order to identify key factors facilitating activity effectiveness, common challenges encountered, and major lessons to be learned. Key facilitating factors included IUCN-FLEG’s professional reputation and network, the program’s adaptability to the local context, and the program’s structure and culture that encouraged learning and adaptation. Some common challenges were community distrust of outsiders, uncertainty due to government reforms, changes in institutional culture, and financial and human capacity limitations of governments in the region. Several lessons were drawn from the analysis of IUCN-FLEG activities. For instance, the IUCN-FLEG was effective at implementing its activities by adopting a facilitative role within existing institutional processes and adapting to the institutional and sociopolitical context in which they were operating. Similarly, sustainable forest governance in the program’s participating countries was fostered by connecting with likeminded and committed professionals on the ground. Finally, the IUCN-FLEG program’s ability to create synergies with governments, NGOs and citizens involved in forestry sectors in Eastern Europe and Russia allowed them to have a consequential impact in the region despite the program’s modest size.